Cause and measures of the prevention

Defect

Cause

Prevention measures

Dirty taste and smell

Use of raw materials with dirty taste and a smell (barny, badly washed dishes and an inventory, foreign); semination of sour cream with a foreign microflora as a result of which the product composition changes, the substances not peculiar to sour cream are accumulated; absorption by sour cream of foreign smells during production and storage.

To use better raw materials, to follow rules of its receiving, storage (in the certain room) and transportation; to provide a careful washing of dishes, inventory and container; to increase temperature of pasteurization of cream; to strictly support the sanitary and hygienic mode on production.

Fodder smack

Transition from a forage to milk, and then specific flavoring and aromatic substances (alkaloids, air, glucosides)in sour cream; adsorption by milk of a smell of forages during the receiving and storage.

To try to obtain the normalized diets of feeding of animals with restriction of quantity of the same forage which is especially sharply smelling (a silo, a swede); to store milk and cream in the special room; to sort milk, to deodorize cream, to increase temperature of pasteurization of cream.

Excessively sour taste and smell

Excessive development of the lactic fermentation caused by a microflora of non-starter origin with high energy of acidogenesis, for example, a heat-resistant fermented lactobacillus. Development of defect is promoted by: temperature increase of souring of cream, high doses of the input starter; the excessively long-lived process of souring; delayed and poor cooling of sour cream; elevated temperatures of transportation and storage.

Purity of ferments should be checked regularly, to carry out their well-timed replacement, to reveal and liquidate the raw materials semination centers by a fermented lactobacillus of non-starter origin or other microflora. To regulate process of souring of cream by change of temperature, duration, graduated (non-simultaneous) souring of cream in capacities taking into account packaging time not to allow becoming too sour; to intensify cooling of sour cream up to the temperature not above 6 °C; to maintain low temperatures at transportation and storage

Fresh taste and smell

Hypoacidity as a result of braking of lactic fermentation. Emergence of this defect is promoted by: low temperatures of souring of cream (especially in cold season), use of the low-fissile starter, and also starter for souring of cream in excessively trace amounts, contamination of cream with inhibitors.

To systematically check activity of starter and its suitability for these raw materials; to ripen cream at more high temperatures, the favorable for development of the microflora which is a part of starter; to increase norm of the input starter.

Empty taste, not expressed aroma

Accumulation of lactic acid without enough aromatic substances. It can be result of use of starter cultures of which produce few aromatic substances; lack of conditions for development of an aroma forming microflora (high temperatures of souring; poor quality of raw materials with the poor content of vitamins, minerals, especially in the spring); low temperatures of pasteurization of cream.

To use the starter which is actively producing aromatic substances; to establish temperature of souring of cream, the favorable for development of aroma forming cultures included into starter; to improve quality of raw materials; to apply more high temperatures of pasteurization of cream.

Barmy smack

Insertion in sour cream and development of a gas-making microflora, in particular different yeast which accumulates its metabolic byproducts.

Strictly to keep the sanitary and hygienic mode during production and storage of sour cream, to maintain the set raw materials pasteurization modes, to constantly control quality of a wash of the equipment and a container.

Bitter taste existence

Use of raw materials with bitter taste (when eating by animals of a sage-brush, substandard forages or bean plants). Bitter taste can appear at storage of raw materials and sour cream as a result of disintegration of proteins under the influence of sour bacteria or other proteolytic fissile microflora which got to products.

To feed an animal the good-quality and normalized forages; to raise bacteriological indicators of raw materials and sour cream; not to allow the long-term storage of raw materials and sour cream.

The oxidized taste

Oxidation of phospholipids and triglycerides of cream and sour cream during production and storage. Oxidation increases under influence even of traces of heavy metals (iron, copper), oxygen and light. Various oxidates worsen taste, reduce nutrition value.

Not to allow insertion of air in a product at any production phase; not to use an inventory and a container not tin-coated and with the broken ware; not to hold products opened on light; to maintain perhaps low temperatures at storage; to add to the product intended for storage, natural antioxidants.

Rancid taste

Hydrolytic decomposition of fat and accumulation of low-molecular acids (oil, capric, caprylic). The lipolysis occurs under the influence of bacteriemic and native lipases. Bacteriemic lipases are formed at activity of the foreign microorganisms (especially mould) which got into raw materials or to sour cream. The bacteriemic semination is higher, the rancid taste develops quicker. Native lipases in the increased quantities are available in milk at the end of a lactation.

To strengthen work on receiving raw materials with a low bacteriemic semination; to reduce shelf-life of raw materials to processing; to pasteurize cream at a temperature not below 87 °C; to keep requirements of the sanitary mode during production and storage of sour cream; perhaps low temperatures at storage of sour cream of 0±1 °C. Not to use milk at the end of a lactation for production of sour cream.

Musty taste

Activity and growth of mold on a surface of a product, a container (especially wooden) and in rooms with poor ventilation.

Not to allow development of mold and other microorganisms on a surface of a product, a container, to apply to packing of sour cream a container after a careful sink and disinfection; to keep clean and it is good to ventilate rooms where sour cream is produced and stored.

Fluid consistence

Unsatisfactory composition of raw materials, with the low maintenance of SOMO and protein; insertion of raw materials into the water; numerous pasteurization of raw materials; use of low temperatures of pasteurization and souring of cream; lack of homogenization of cream or application of the homogenization modes which are not corresponding to these raw materials; poor physical maturing at a temperature above +7 °C with endurance less than 1 h; use of improper starters, underipening or excessive oevrripening of cream; the strong mechanical impact on a clot (during the hashing, flowing through, a packaging); packaging sour creams at low temperatures (it is below 16-18 °C); storage of sour cream at high temperatures.

Depending on conditions of production to remove the causes of development of sour cream with a fluid consistence.

Grainy consistence

Use of stale raw materials, raw materials with a hyperoxemia, after long storage, with low heat stability of proteins; carrying out process of homogenization before pasteurization; pasteurization of cream at excessively high temperatures; use of the starter which does not have viscid properties; use of high temperatures of souring of cream; hyperacidity at the end of souring, intensive and constant stirring of a clot to and during packaging; excessive long packaging.

More carefully to control freshness of raw materials and its heat stability. To accelerate processing of milk and cream, without allowing storage more than 6 h even at a temperature of 0-6 °C. To carry out homogenization of cream after pasteurization at a temperature not below 70 °C; to pasteurize cream at a limit inferior of temperatures specified in the instruction; to apply the starters having viscid properties of cream to ripen at lower temperatures and to finish process of souring at achievement of the limit, tolerance limit of acidity of a clot; to make minimum mechanical impact on a clot during the hashing, packaging, duration of packaging should not exceed 3 h.

The nonuniform consistence

Lack of homogenization or poor effectiveness of homogenization; high doses of starter, lack of hashing at a starter importation in capacity prior to filling by cream.

To apply the modes of homogenization of cream with sufficient effectiveness of process; to reduce doses of the applied starter; to bring starter in capacity after receipt of cream in it when hashing. Not to allow freezing of sour cream.

Defect of fermentation

Semination and development in sour cream of gas-making microorganisms, mainly, bacteria of group of colibacillus and yeast.

To strengthen the sanitary and hygienic mode of production and storage of sour cream; Strictly to maintain the modes of pasteurization of cream; to pasteurize cream after homogenization; to follow rules of washing and disinfection of a container.

Serum sedimentation

Use of raw materials of unsatisfactory structure with the low content of the dry fat-free substances, insufficiently fresh, with a hyperoxemia; lack of homogenization; use of the starter forming the pricked clot which is easily emitting serum at its violation; use of high temperatures of souring; high acidity of cream at the end of souring; the strong numerous mechanical impact on a clot os ripened cream or sour cream.

To strengthen quality control of milk and cream; to process fresh milk on sour cream with the maintenance of SOMO not less than 8,5%, protein not less than 3%; not to allow storage of raw materials at the plant more than 6 h (at a temperature of 0-6 °C); to apply homogenization of cream; to use the starters forming a smooth, low-viscosity clot; to reduce temperature of souring of cream at lower acidity; to reduce mechanical impact on a clot of ripened cream during the hashing, flowing through and packaging. To store sour cream at low temperatures.

Mucous (viscous) consistence

Semination and development in sour cream of mucoid microorganisms.

To apply high temperatures of pasteurization of cream, to strictly support the sanitary and hygienic mode by production and storage of sour cream, to control and in due time to change starters.

Existence of color spots (blue, pink, etc.)

Development of pigmental bacteria in milk and sour cream. These bacteria are hazardous to health of the person. Sour cream is considered as defected product.

Not to process milk with color shades unusual for it; to apply high temperatures of pasteurization of cream, to support a high sanitary and hygienic condition of production.